A critical study of Labor Human Rights in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Region Registration Document


A critical study of Labor Human Rights in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Region Registration Document

A critical study of Labor Human Rights in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Region Registration Document
This paper mainly focuses on the research’s proposed plan of work. It includes the following areas: Aims, objectives, methods and methodology of how the research will be conducted, the area where the study will take place, data collection, outline of draft chapters, forward plan for the studies and book reference list.

Proposed plan of work
The following order regarding the various steps that will be followed during the research provides a suitable procedural guideline concerning the research process:
• Formulating the research problem
• Broad literature survey
• Developing the hypothesis
• Preparing the research design
• Determining sample design
• Collecting the data
• Executing the project
• Analysis of data
• Testing the hypothesis
• Generalizations


• Formulating the research problem
The researcher will single out the problem that he wants to study, for instance he will decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that he would like to inquire into. He will state the problem in a broad general way and then resolve any ambiguities that relate to the problem. He will consider the feasibility of a particular solution before setting up a working formulation of the problem. Therefore, formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, will constitute the first step in the study. Essentially two steps will be involved in the formulation of the research problem; thorough understanding of the problem, and restating the same into meaningful terms from an analytical viewpoint.

• Extensive literature survey
After formulating the problem, the researcher will write a brief summary of it. He will write a synopsis of the topic and then submit it to the necessary Committee for approval. At this stage he will undertake extensive literature survey linked to the problem. For this purpose, he will consider indexing and abstracting journals as well as published bibliographies. He will tap conference proceedings, academic journals, government reports and books. He will carefully study earlier studies that are similar to this study. Without a doubt, good library will be of great help to the researcher at this juncture.

• Development of working hypotheses
After the extensive literature survey, the researcher will state in clear terms the working hypothesis. A working hypothesis refers to a tentative assumption made so as to draw out and test its empirical or logical consequences (Colton, 2010). For this research the hypothesis will be: The working conditions of expatriate workers in the GCC countries are detrimental to their mental and physical well-being, and this issue can be dealt with by increasing awareness about it in the migrants’ home nation as well as the migrating nation.
Indeed, the research hypothesis is particularly imperative since it will provide the focal point for this research. Besides, it will affect the way tests will be conducted during data analysis and the quality of data that is required for the analysis. The hypothesis for this research will be very specific and limited to this piece of research in hand since it will have to be tested. The hypothesis will guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keeping him on the right track (Barzun & Graff, 2011). It will also sharpen his thinking and focus attention on the more imperative aspects of the problem. It will also indicate the type of data required as well as the type of methods of data analysis that will be used.

• Preparing the research design
After formulating the research problem in clear cut terms, the researcher will prepare a research design, for instance he will state the conceptual structure within which this research will be conducted. This will facilitate the research to be very efficient and yield maximal information (Baker & Howell, 2011). The research design will help the researcher collect relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of time, money and effort. A flexible research design that offers opportunity to consider various aspects of a problem will be appropriate for this study (Emory, 2012).
Research design focuses on structuring the research so as to show how the samples, methods used during the study and programs coordinate to address the fundamental research questions. It entails the theoretical structure in which the study is carried out and comprises of the outline for data collection, data measurement and data analysis (Deming, 2010).


• Determining sample design
Sampling refers to the process of selecting some part of totality or an aggregate on the basis of which conclusion about the totality or aggregate can be made (Fox, 2008). It involves obtaining information about an entire population through examination of only a part of it. In this research, generalizations will be made and inferences will be drawn on the basis of samples about the population parameters from which the samples are taken (Cordasco & Gatner, 2010).
175 respondents will be sampled; 100 migrant workers, 50 human right activists and 25 government officials from the migrant countries. The researcher will then consider the sample as a true representation of target population in the six nations of The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Region: Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, the UAE and Saudi Arabia. All this will be done on the postulation that the sample data will enable him to make an estimation of the population parameters. The items selected make up what is theoretically known as a sample. Sample will truly be representative of population features without any biasness so that it reliable and valid conclusions can be made.


• Data collection
This chapter deals with the procedures that will be followed to conduct the study. It involves the area of study, the population, the techniques used for sampling as well as the methods that will be used by the researcher for data collection. This is a qualitative research as it is concerned with subjective assessment of opinions, attitudes as well as behavior (Sharma, 2009). Qualitative research is a function of the insights and impressions of the researcher. A qualitative approach to research produces results either in the form that are not subjected to thorough quantitative analysis or in non-quantitative form (Nie, et al., 2009). Generally, the methods of focus group interviews, depth interviews and projective techniques will be used.
The research is meant to prove the hypothesis: The working circumstances of expatriate workers in the GCC nations are harmful to their physical and mental welfare, and this matter can be dealt with by increasing the awareness about it in the home nations of the migrants as well as the migrating nation. In addition, a strong political pressure on the nations of the GCC region is likely to help reduce labor exploitations.
The three main objectives of the study include the following:
• To determine if the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations can create a climate that is friendly to migrating laborers in terms of global labor rights policies and regulations.
• To understand the degree of awareness of labor rights in each of the six GCC countries and the extent to which the governments of these nations put in place measures that are aimed at dealing with the issue.
• To understand the ways that can help in reducing expatriate labor exploitation in these nations.

• Target Population
Population refers to a group of people or objects that have common apparent characteristics. The study will be conducted within The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Region, mainly in Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Without a doubt, these countries employ large numbers of expatriates. They are mainly known for their wealth that is majorly gotten from gas and oil exports throughout the world (Sivam & Singh, 2011). Conversely, one of the key recent concerns in this region has been labor exploitation (Singh, 2009). The researcher will identify three categories of population; migrant workers, human right activists and government officials in the three countries. They will then be sampled, and instruments for research will be administered to them.

• Instruments for Data Collection
Questionnaires will be widely used since they are more effectual to collect data. The respondents will also be interviewed.
• Questionnaires
This method of data collection is very popular, mainly in case of big requests for information (Oppenheim, 2010). It is being adopted by research workers, private individuals, public and private organizations and governments. In this method, questionnaires will be administered to the respondents with a request in order to answer the questions and send back the questionnaires. A questionnaire contains various questions that are printed or typed in a certain order on a set of forms (Oppenheim, 2010). Questionnaires are mailed to respondents who are required to read and understand the questions and inscribe the reply in the spaces that are meant for the purpose in the questionnaires themselves. These respondents are required to answer the questions on their own (Piaget, 2009).
Well organized questionnaires will be administered to the respondents; migrant workers, human right activists and government officials. The researcher will ensure that the questions are very clear since any kind of misunderstanding can result in irreparable harm to the research survey. The questions will be impartial so as not to result in a biased picture of the true state of affairs. They will be formed with a view to their resulting in a logical part of a tabulation plan that is well thought out. Generally, all questions will be easily understood, simple, and concrete. The researcher will ensure that they conform to the respondent’s way of thinking. In order to improve the effectiveness of the questionnaire and ensure high quality of the received replies, the researcher will pay attention to the question-order in preparing the questionnaire. A proper sequence of questions lowers the chances of individual questions being misunderstood considerably. The question-sequence will be smoothly-moving and clear, meaning that the relation of one question to another will be readily apparent to the respondent. Questions that are easiest to answer will be put in the beginning. Indeed, the first few questions are mostly important since they are likely to influence the respondent’s attitude and in seeking his desire cooperation (Ramchandran, 2011).
This method of data collection will be used because of the following reasons:
• The cost incurred is low even when the universe is widely spread geographically and large.
• This method is free from the interviewer’s biasness since the answers are in the own words of the respondents.
• The respondents have sufficient time to give well thought out answers.
• It is possible to make use of large samples; therefore, the results can be made more reliable and dependable.

• Oral interviews
The interview method of data collection involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli as well as reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. It can be applied through personal interviews and, if possible, through telephone interviews (Selltiz, et al., 2012). This research will involve personal interview. This method requires the researcher to ask questions generally in a face-to-face contact to the respondent (Miller, 2010). In this research, the students to be interviewed will be given a chance to ask the researcher certain questions. However, the interviewer will initiate the interview and collect the information.
Two forms of personal interview will be used so as achieve the objectives of this research: Direct personal investigation and indirect oral investigation. In the case of direct personal investigation the researcher will collect data personally from the sources concerned. He will on the spot meet the migrant workers, human rights activists and government officials of GCC region chosen as the area of study. This method is principally appropriate for rigorous investigations.
Since this research involves an extensive scope of enquiry, indirect oral examination will also be used. Besides, it will be very effective in case it won’t be worthwhile or possible to contact directly some respondents. The researcher will cross-examine other people who are supposed to take cognizance of the problem under examination and the obtained information will then be recorded. The technique of collecting data through personal interviews will be carried out in a structured manner. A set of highly standardized techniques of recording and predetermined questions will be used during the research. A rigid procedure will be laid down and questions will be asked in a prescribed form and order.
This research will involve focused interview at times. This type of interview is meant to concentrate attention on the given experience of the respondent as well as its effects. When using this kind of interview, the researcher will decide the sequence and manner in which the questions will be asked. Furthermore, the researcher will also explore motives and reasons. The main undertaking of the researcher in case of this type of interview is to confine the respondents to a discussion of questions with which he seeks conversance. Focused interview will generally help the researcher develop hypotheses. The researcher will also use clinical interview during the research. This type of interview is mainly concerned with basic motivations or feelings. It is also concerned with the course of respondent’s life experience. The technique of eliciting information will generally be left to the interviewer’s discretion. He will encourage the respondent to talk about the given issue with a bare minimum of direct questioning. He will act as a catalyst to an all-inclusive expression of the respondents’ beliefs and feelings and of the frame of reference within which such beliefs and feelings take on personal significance
For successful carrying out of the interview method to collect data, the researcher is required to be impartial, honest and sincere. Furthermore, he must possess the necessary practical experience and technical competence (Levine & Elzey, 2013). Some provision will be made in advance so that suitable action will be taken in case some of the selected respondents fail to cooperate or are not available during the research. Since interviewing is a skill overseen by various scientific principles, every effort will be made to result in a friendly atmosphere of trust and confidence to make respondents feel at ease while discussing with and talking to the interviewer. The interviewer will ask questions intelligently and properly and record the responses completely and accurately. At the same time, the interviewer will answer any questions asked by the respondent and clear any doubt that the latter might have. The approach of the researcher will be courteous, friendly, unbiased and conversational. Moreover, the interviewer will not express surprise or disapproval of a respondent’s answer. He will keep the interview’s direction in his own hand, discourage immaterial conversation and make all possible determination to keep the respondent on the track.
Oral interviews will be used to collect data during the research because of the following reasons:
• More information can be obtained.
• Interviewer by his own skill is able to overcome the resistance, if any, of the respondents; the interview method can be made to yield an almost perfect sample of the general population.
• There is greater flexibility under this method as the opportunity to restructure questions is always there, especially in case of unstructured interviews.
• Interviews with the migrant workers
The interview with the migrant workers is meant to collect data on the degree of awareness of labor rights in the GCC countries.
In addition, the interview is also meant to find out:
• Whether the nations of the migrating laborers are complicit in the exploitation of their own people.
• The means by which expatriate labor exploitation in the GCC region can be curbed.
• Interviews with human rights activists
The interview with the human right activists is meant to collect data on the degree of awareness of labor rights in the GCC countries. In addition, the interview is also meant to find out:
• If there is any truth in the recent speculations and reports on the topic of a potential change in the labor regulations in the nations of the GCC region.
• The means by which expatriate labor exploitation in the GCC region can be curbed
• Interviews with the government officials of the migrant countries
The interview with the government officials of the migrant countries is meant to collect data on the extent to which the governments of the nations of GCC region put in place measures that are aimed at dealing with the issue. In addition, the interview is also meant to find out:
• How the questionable labor practices and lack of responsibility as regards the issue in the GCC nations can be addressed effectively.
• If there is any truth in the recent speculations and reports on the topic of a potential change in the labor regulations in the nations of the GCC region.
• The means by which expatriate labor exploitation in the GCC region can be curbed.

• Observations
The observation method is one of the most commonly used methods in studies that relate to behavioral sciences. Observation becomes a scientific tool and a data collection method for the researcher when it serves an expressed research purpose, when it is systematically recorded, planned and subjected to controls and checks on reliability and validity. Under the method of observation, the information is sought by way of the direct observation of the researcher without asking from the respondent (Kothari, 2010). Observations of migrant workers at their place of work as well as their ways and conditions of living will be made so as to help in data collection.
In this research, non-controlled observation will be used. In this type of observation, no attempt will be made to use precision instruments since it will be aimed at getting a spontaneous picture of persons and life. Non controlled observation has been chosen for this research because it has a tendency of offering completeness as well as naturalness of behavior thus allowing adequate time for observing it. The main feature of this type of observation is subjective interpretation. It is resorted to in case of investigative researches.
Generally, observation will be used as a tool for data collection in this research because of a number of reasons:
• The researcher is able to record the natural behavior of the selected group.
• It is possible for the researcher to obtain information that could not easily be obtained if he makes observations in a disinterested fashion.
• The researcher is able to verify the truth of the statements made by informants in the context of a questionnaire or a schedule.

• Secondary data
Secondary data refers to the data that has already been collected and analyzed by other researchers. The researcher will look into various sources to get secondary data. In this case he won’t be confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. He will use published data available in various publications of the state, local and central governments; various publications of international bodies or foreign governments as well as their subsidiary organizations. He will also use newspapers, books, magazines, reports and publications of various associations.

• Execution of the project
Without a doubt, execution of the project is a key step in the research. If the execution of the project ensues on correct lines, the data to be collected will be dependable and adequate. The researcher will see that the project is executed in time and in a systematic way. Since this research will be carried out by means of structured questionnaires, data will be readily machine-processed. Questions and the possible answers will be coded. Since data will also be collected through interviews, arrangements will be made for proper selection as well as training of the interviewers. The training will be given with the help of instruction manuals that clearly explain the job of the interviewers at each step.

• Processing and Analysis of Data
Once the information has been collected, it will be edited. Data editing mainly involves examining the collected raw data to detect omissions and errors in order to correct them when possible. In point of fact, editing encompasses a careful examination of the completed questionnaires. Editing will be done to ensure that the data is uniformly entered, accurate, consistent with other facts collected and well arranged to enhance coding as well as tabulation. With regard to stages or points at which editing is done, one can talk of central editing and field editing. Field editing will be imperative for completing (rewriting or translating) what the researcher has written in illegible and/or abbreviated form at the time of recording the responses of the respondents. This type of editing will be essential in view of the fact that individual writing styles can be hard for others to interpret. Editing will be done as soon as possible after the interview. During field editing, the researcher will restrain himself and won’t correct omission errors by basically guessing the answer that the respondent would have given if the question had been asked.
Once the data has been edited properly, it will be coded. Coding mainly involves assigning symbols or numerals to answers in order for responses to be put into a limited number of classes or categories. Such classes will be suitable to the research problem being considered. In this research, the classes will possess the characteristic of exhaustiveness for instance there will be a class for each data item as well as that of mutual exclusively. This means that a specific answer will be placed in one cell in a given category set.
Another rule that will be observed is that of uni-dimensionality by which each class is defined in terms of one concept. Coding is necessary for well-organized analysis since it enables several replies to be reduced to a small number of classes that contain the key information required for analysis. Coding decisions will be taken at the questionnaire’s designing stage. This will make it possible to pre-code the questionnaire choices thus be helpful for computer tabulation since one can key punch from the original questionnaires straight forward. The researcher will see that coding errors are reduced or eliminated to the minimum level. A large volume of raw data will be reduced into homogeneous groups in order to get meaningful relationships.
Classification of data will be necessary, as well. This refers to the process of arranging data into classes or groups based on common characteristics. Pieces of information that have a common characteristic will be placed in one class thus the entire data will be divided into a number of classes or groups. While classifying the data according to attributes, the researcher will see that the attributes are defined in such a way that there is least possibility of any ambiguity and doubt concerning the said attributes (Maxwell, 2010).
Without a doubt, the data collected during the study will be sorted so that only relevant data is utilized. Its precision will be reviewed to form the basis of analysis. It will then be presented using percentage and frequency tables, graphs, pie charts, maps, photographs and figures.


• Hypothesis-testing
After analyzing data, the researcher will be in a position to test the hypotheses that he had formulated earlier. Various tests for instance t-test, F-test and Chi square test have been developed by various statisticians for the purpose. Hypothesis-testing will lead to accepting or rejecting the hypothesis.

• Generalizations
If the hypothesis formulated by the researcher is tested and upheld many times, it will be possible for him to arrive at generalization for instance to build a theory. Actually, the real value of research activity lies in its ability to arrive at certain generalizations (Young, 2010).


Baker, R. & Howell, A., 2011. The Preparation of Reports. New York: Ronald Press.
Barzun, J. & Graff, H. F., 2011. The Modern Researcher. rev. ed. ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc..
Colton, R., 2010. Research and Report Writing for Business and Economics. New York: Random House.
Cordasco, F. & Gatner, E. S., 2010. Research and Report Writing. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc..
Deming, W. E., 2010. Sample Design in Business Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons., Inc..
Emory, C. W., 2012. Business Research Methods. Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Fox, J. H., 2008. Criteria of Good Research. Vol. 39 ed. s.l.:Phi Delta Kappa.
Kothari, C., 2010. Quantitative Techniques, 2nd ed.. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd..
Levine, S. & Elzey, F. F., 2013. A Programmed Introduction to Research,. California: Wods Worth Publishing Co..
Maxwell, A. E., 2010. Analyzing Qualitative Data. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Miller, D. C., 2010. Handbook of Research Design & Social Measurement, 3rd ed. New York: David Mckay Company, Inc..
Nie, N., Bent, D. & Hull, C., 2009. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oppenheim, A., 2010. Questionnaire Design and Attitude Measurement. New York: Basic Books.
Piaget, J., 2009. Main Trends in Interdisciplinary Research. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Ramchandran, P., 2011. Training in Research Methodology in Social Sciences in India. New Delhi: ICSSR.
Selltiz, C., Jahoda, M., Deutsch, M. & Cook, S. W., 2012. Research Methods in Social Relations, rev. ed.. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc..
Sharma, B., 2009. Research Methods in Social Sciences. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd..
Singh, M., 2009. Human trafficking escalating in GCC. McClatchy -Tribune Business News, Volume 3, pp. 33-56.
Sivam, A. K. S. & Singh, K., 2011. An Overview of the Gulf Countries’ Construction Industry (pp. 819-838).. Springer Netherlands.: s.n.
Young, P. V., 2010. Scientific Social Surveys and Research. 3rd ed. New York: Prentice-Hall.