Recent Draft :Topic- Can Mindful meditation help alleviate stress (and associated problems) within the teaching profession

Topic: Can Mindful meditation help alleviate stress (and associated problems) within the teaching profession

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Type: dissertation

Volume: 100 pages

Style: MLA

Chapter 1 Introduction and Background (1800 Words)

1.1 Introdction
According to Thomson, Turner and Nietfeld (2012), teaching is one of the most noble professions since the begigning of time. They continue to explain that teaching offers job security and its value cannot be estimated. In the recent times, there have been a lot of changes in the education sector globally. Many ascertain that these changes have seen teachers more stressed and there is little to enjoy on the work that they do. According to Nunan (2013), the education sector has seen an increases in work load and limited resources available at the disposal of teachers. This is to say that, the working conditions are no longer friendly to the teachers. There are many challenges that are associated with working in a limited resorce setting one of this challenges is stress. It has emerged that due to the increasing demands on teachers to produce well moulded and civilized persons, the stress level and burn out they experience should be a cause of concern. According to Gold and Roth (2013) teachers are most vulnerable when it comes to the negative effects of stress at the work place. They point out that one of the factors thaut determine the degree of stress is the level of burn out faced by the teachers. It is tre to say that stressed teachers cannot be efficient in the work that they do. With this perspective it is important to understand the dynamics and the causes of stress among teachers, partivularly those serving in public schools. According to Roeser et al. (2012) te level of teacher stress greatly interferes with the level of student motivation. This is to say that the negative impact of stress on teachers is under performance among students. For this reason it is necessary to address the causes of the stress on the teacher in order to improve the quality of education. This is according to Roeser et al. (2012). There are number of stresors that have been identified. The need to discipline students, intensive preparation for lessons and burn out are some of the factors that determine th level of stress among teachers. This accoding to Gold and Roth (2013). This is to say that by excluding these factors among others, it is possible to alleviate stress among teachers. However,looking at the number of teachers quiting the profession it is important to have a primary intervention to address stress among teachers. According to Flook et al. (2013), teachers undergo occupational stress and this is a primary challenege in the education sector. With these findings it is possible to identify measures that can be put in place to ensure that teachers do not face the negative effects of occupational stress as described by Flook et al. (2013).
1.2 Background of the Study
According to Carmody et al. (2009), Midfulness dates as far as 2500 years ago and its poplarity is increasing globally as a means to redce stress and improve attention span. Accordig to Troy et al. (2013) mindfulness has been indentified as an effective therapy for mood and anxiety disorders. Having identified the need for interventions to alleviate stress and its effects among teachers, mindful meditation becomes an option for consideration. According to Harris et al. (2016), there have been programs such as Community Approach Learning Mindfully (CALM) intended to reduce stress and foster well being. It is approaches such as these that are required in the education sector to ensure the well being of teacher. There is a great need to esure that teachers have internal mental and emotional stability for them to be efeective. According to Khoury et al. (2013) mindfulness increases the awareness of stress and this is the first step at coping with the negative effects of stress. Khoury et al. (2013) point out that stress brings about maladaptive behavior and negative affect among the teachers. In a broader perspective, negative affect points towards deeper mental and psychological ailments such as depression which can be described as a stress related health problem as pointed out by Goyal et al. (2014). Therefore it is not enough to make the teachers efficient but also protect them from the negative effects of stress. According to Goyal et al. (2014), meditation reduces psychological stress and associated health related problems. This raises te question can mindfulness reduce stress levels among teachers?
According to Taylor et al. (2016), mindfulness based interventions have been seen to reduces the stress levels among teachers. Because teachers are most vulnerable to the negative outcomes of stress, as pointed out by Gold and Roth (2013), it is important to have preventive meachanisms to protect them from these effects of stress. There are number of measures that can be put in place for the benefit of teachers. Some of the measures can include meditation away from school in a more calm environment like home. According to Frank et al. (2015) certain mindfulness based programs have been shown to reduce stress on educators and increase their levels of well being. Frank et al. (2015) also noted that some of this programs can be home based. Mindful meidatation involves taking steps towards having peace of mind and sanity of thought. Looking at the challenges faced by teachers it is important to take such initiative to ensure that the teachers are well before they can execute their tasks properly. Having a more preventive approach would work for the benefit of the teacher. Mindfulness based programs such as CALM can avert a bigger crisis which is having teachers suffering from mental illnesses which require interventions by medical professionals. According to Troy et al. (2013), as a therapy for mood and anxiety disorders, mindfulness can prove to be very useful in the education sector. Chaplain (2008) points out the fact that more and more teachers are leaving the profession. Looking at the bigger picture, this mass exodus of teachers creates even a bigger deficit which presents as more challenges for those with the mandate to teach. Mindful meditation has been tested and tried as a method of stress reduction. By so doing it is possible to ensure the complete well being of all teachers and improved quality of education.
1.3 Rationale ( Reason for the Study)
According to Taylor et al. (2016), strategies based on mindful meditation can reduce stress among teachers. Having identified the fact that a number of teachers are quiting their profession, according to Chaplain (2008), the need to identify the causes, effects of stress among teachers and the interventions that can alleviate this stress is the sole purposeof this study. With particular focus on meditation and mindfulness based therapies, it is possible to establish the role of these approach in reducing stress levels and anxiety among teacher. The primary goal is to increase efficiency of the teachers while ensuring their mental and emotional well being.
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to establish the role of mindfulness and meditation as interventions in alleviating stress among teachers.
This study seeks to fulfil the following objectives:
i. To identify the causes of stress among teachers
ii. To establish the long term and short term effects of stress among teahers
iii. To determine the long term and short term effects of teachers’ stress on the pupils
iv. To esrtablish the definition of mindfulness
v. To identify the interventions in place alleviate teachers’ stress and their effectiveness
vi. To assess the potential of having more interventions in place to alleviate the problem of stress among teachers.
1.5 Research Questions
This study seeks to answer the following questions;
I. What are the causes of stress among Teachers?
II. What are the long and short term effects of stress on Teachers?
III. What are the long and short term effects on pupils?
IV. What is Mindfulness?
V. What mechanisms are in place? How effective are these methods?
VI. Is there Potential moving forward ?
1.6 Relevance of the Study
According to Harris et al. (2016), there is need to have programs such as CALM to promote the management of stress and well being of teachers. The findings from this study will be useful to teachers and those intending to get into the teaching profession. According to Gold and Roth (2013), some of the cause of stress among teachers include too many demands on them and burn out. By being aware of the possible causes of stress more and more teachers can take precaution and have measures in place to protect them from the negative effects of stress. According to Khoury et al. (2013) there are certain benefits to mindful meditation as a means fo reducing stress and anxiety. By assessing the benefits of mindfulness in alleviating stress, more and more schools can have programs in place to help the teachers cope with anxiety and stress. Taylor et al. (2016) recommend mindful based interventions to reduce stress among teachers. On the other hand, the findings of this study will prove to be beneficial to policy makers who can work towards employing more teachers to reduce the ever increasing workload. By having equitable distribution of resources it is possible to improve the working conditions for teachers hence alleviating the stress levels and increasing efficiency in the education sector. This study will also compel more people to conduct research on the possible measures to curb stress and its effects among teachers.
1.7 Structure of the Dissertation
Chapter one is an introduction to the research problems and the relevance of the study. In this chapter the aims, objectives and study questions are clearly outlined. In this chapter the background of the study is tackled in detail.
Chapter two is the literature review where findings by a number of authors, relevant to this study, are compared and contrasted. Essentially by having a critical analysis of the findings by the other scholars it is possible to highlight the issues at stake and draw some conclusions from the findings of the various scholars.

In Chapter three the research methods are discussed in details. In this chapter the sampling methods, study tools and ethical concerns of the research are discussed. In addition to these, the limitations and delimitations of the study are clearly spelt out.
In chapter four, the data collected is interpreted and represented in ways that simple for the reader to understand. Essentially this chapter involves data analysis and representation.
Chapter five is the discussion where the data interpreted and analysed are discussed in line with the objectives of the study. The discussion of the data is correlated with the findings from the various sources in the literature review.
Chapter six the is conclusion of the study. In the chapter, the summary of the findindgs that are relevant to the researcher are stated. The limitations of the study are also clearly outlined. From the findings, recommendantions can also be made.

Chapter 2 Literature review (4000 words)
2.1. Introduction
According to Fink (2013), Literature review forms an essential part of any study. Essentially, the literature review evaluates works by past scholars obtained from books, articles and journals or any other relevant sources. The literature review contextualizes the study topic and also helps the have more insight on the research questions and the objectives. The literature review in this study is categorized based on the objectives of this study. The first category analyses the causes of stress among teachers. Having identified the fact that teaches undergo so much stress in their day to day activities, it is important to clearly understand the dynamics surrounding the causes of this stress. The second sub-topic is focused on the consequences of teachers’ stress on the pupils. It important to understand the role of teachers in shaping the lives of the students they teach. For this reason, many authors have looked into the consequences of having stressed teachers handling students. the third section looks at the definition of mindfulness and ways of advancing mindfulness. It has been documented that mindful meditaion is a way of battling stress and anxiety. By looking at literature already put down it is possible to establish the role of mindfulness in alleviating stress among teachers. Lastly this literatre review will seek to find out the advances in mindful approach to alleviating stress. These advances will determine how useful the technique will be in reducing stress among teachers.
2.2. What are the long and short term effects on pupils?
The role of teachers in shaping the lives of students has been explained over the years. According to Roeser et al. (2012), teachers play a very significant role in ensuring the motivation of students. On the other hand, Collie, Shapka and Perry (2012), explain the fact that the teacher efficacy directly suffers as a result of stress among them. While Collie, Shapka and Perry (2012), talk of teacher efficacy, Roeser et al. (2012) highlight the fact that the students’ motivation suffers most due to teachers’ stress.

2.3. What are the causes of stress amongst teachers?
It has been recognized that teaching has become one of the most stressful professions. Accoring to Gold and Roth (2013) research shows that teachers are most vulnerable to stress. Gold and Roth (2013) continue to explain that stdent teachers face the greatest challenge when it comes to stress and its effects. Flook et al. (2013) agree with the finding by Gold and Roth (2013), they explain that one of the greatest challenges in the education sector is stress among teachers. Even though Flook et al. (2013) have recognized the fact that stressed teachers are a problem in the education sector, they fail to vividl describe the causes of stress among teachers. On the contrary, Nunan (2013) is keen on the fact that increasing stress among teachers is attributable to working in a limited resource setting and having excess workload. In agreement Gold and Roth (2013) explain that student teachers are at greatest risk of work related stress because of the intense process of preparing for classes. Gold and Roth (2013) continue to explain that the increasing work load is a cause of burn out to most teachers and this is the greatest cause of stress. On the other hand, Capel (2016) presents a slightly different idea to what is discussed by Nunan (2013). He attributes teachers’ stress to the need to discipline students and the fact that working with students can be difficult. The argument presented by Capel (2016) is valid but it merely compliments the ideologies presented by Nunan (2013) who brings out the fact that stress is due to increasing work load. The need to discipline and supervise students, as described by Capel (2016), is the work load that Nunan (2013) is talking about. According to Liu and Onwegbuzie (2012) there are certain major identifiable causes of stress among teachers. They point out the fact that low salary, student behavior and heavy work load are the major causes of stress among teachers. Liu and Onwegbuzie (2013) explain that the fact that teachers receive inadequate breaks is a factor that can be attributed to the increasing level of stress. The explaination presented by Liu and Owengbuzie (2013) is justifiable. Nunan (2013) explains further that the fact that teachers work in a limited resource setting is the greates contributor to stress. The limited resources that Nunan (2013) mentions can be linked to the issues of poor pay and limited breaks among the teachers. Gold and Roth (2013) have considered all the dynamics that surround stress among teachers.They are keen on the fact that the job in itself demands a lot of knowledge and responsibility among the teachers. For this reason,Chaplain (2008) point out that the teaching profession has become less fulfilling by the day. They continue to explain that more and more teachers quit the profession due to increasing workload and job stress. The findngs by Chaplain (2008) can be correlated to the findings by Liu and Onwegbuzie (2012).

2.4. What mechanisms are in place? How effective are these methods?

2.5. What is mindfulness?

2.6. What does previous research on mindfulness show?

2.7. Potential moving forward

2.8. Conclusion

Chapter 3 Research Methods (3500 words)

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Purpose
3.3 The Research Framework
3.4 Research Philosophy and Perspective
3.5 Research Approach Adopted
3.6 Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Study
3.7 Research Methods Used-
3.8 Sampling Method
3.9 Data Analysis
3.10 Validity and Reliability- Triangulation
3.11 Ethical concerns
3.12 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study
3.13 Conclusion

Chapter 4 Data Findings and Presentation of Results (3500 words)
4.2Case Study Results in Tables Based on the Research Objectives

Chapter 5 Data analysis and Discussion (5000 words)

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Overview

5.3. Discussion of the specific objectives

5.4. Conclusion

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations (1000 words)
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Conclusions
6.3. Implications of the study
6.4. Recommendations

Required 45 sources (Mainly recent sources between 2005 to 2016)
Beltman, S., Mansfield, C., & Price, A. (2011). Thriving not just surviving: A review of research on teacher resilience. Educational Research Review, 6(3), 185-207.
Capel, S. 2016. Managing your time, workload and stress, and building your resilience. Learning to Teach in the Secondary School: A Companion to School Experience, PP. 45.
Carmody, J. 2009. Evolving conceptions of mindfulness in clinical settings. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, Vol 23, Pp.270 –280.
Chaplain, R. P. 2008. Stress and psychological distress among trainee secondary teachers in England. Educational Psychology, Volume 28, Pp.195-209.
Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1189.

Fink, A. 2013. Conducting research literature reviews: from the Internet to paper. Sage Publications, London
Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. 2013. Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, Volume 7, Pp.182-195.
Frank, J. L., Reibel, D., Broderick, P., Cantrell, T., & Metz, S. 2015. The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on educator stress and well-being: Results from a pilot study. Mindfulness, Volume 6, Pp.208-216.
Gloria, C. T., Faulk, K. E., & Steinhardt, M. A. (2013). Positive affectivity predicts successful and unsuccessful adaptation to stress. Motivation and Emotion, 37(1), 185-193.

Gold, Y., & Roth, R. A. 2013. Teachers managing stress & preventing burnout. Routledge, London.
Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., … & Ranasinghe, P. D. 2014. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine, Volune 174, Pp.357-368.
Harris, A. R., Jennings, P. A., Katz, D. A., Abenavoli, R. M., & Greenberg, M. T. 2016. Promoting stress management and wellbeing in educators: feasibility and efficacy of a school-Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., … & Hofmann, S. G. 2013. Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, Volume 33, Pp.763-771.
Liu, S., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2012). Chinese teachers’ work stress and their turnover intention. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 160-170.

based yoga and mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness, Volme 7, Pp.143-154.
Masicampo, E. J., & Baumeister, R. F. 2007. Relating mindfulness and self-regulatory processes. Psychological Inquiry, Volme 18, Pp. 255–258.
Nunan, S. 2013. Keeping in Touch, General Secretary’s Report. In Touch INTO Volume 137.
Roeser, R. W., Skinner, E., Beers, J., & Jennings, P. A. 2012. Mindfulness training and teachers’ professional development: An emerging area of research and practice. Child Development Perspectives, Volume 6, Pp. 167-173.
Taylor, C., Harrison, J., Haimovitz, K., Oberle, E., Thomson, K., Schonert-Reichl, K., & Roeser, R. W. 2016. Examining ways that a mindfulness-based intervention reduces stress in public school teachers: A mixed-methods study. Mindfulness, Volume 7, Pp. 115-129.
Thomson, M. M., Turner, J. E., & Nietfeld, J. L. 2012. A typological approach to investigate the teaching career decision: Motivations and beliefs about teaching of prospective teacher candidates. Teaching and teacher education, Volume 28, Pp. 324-335.
Troy, A. S., Shallcross, A. J., Davis, T. S., & Mauss, I. B. 2013. History of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is associated with increased cognitive reappraisal ability. Mindfulness, Volume3, Pp. 213-222.
Wang, H., Hall, N. C., & Rahimi, S. (2015). Self-efficacy and causal attributions in teachers: Effects on burnout, job satisfaction, illness, and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 47, 120-130.

Williams, J. M. G., & Kabat-Zinn, J. 2013. Mindfulness: Diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins and applications. Routledge.London.



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